平安型 Heian Kata
Among the 26 kata, the Heian Kata are one of the first five basic in the JKA/Shotokan system. On the island of Okinawa, this group of kata were originally called the 'Pinan' kata. The name Heian was given to them by Sensei Funakoshi Gichin and is most commonly interpreted as meaning 'Peaceful Mind'. The Heian kata are named in a fashion that indicates their level of difficulty, i.e. one to five. With the exception of the Tekki kata, the other Shotokan kata are not named with such a numerical identity.
基本, きほん Kihon
Is a Japanese term meaning "basics" or "fundamentals." The term is used to refer to the basic techniques that are taught and practiced as the foundation of most Japanese martial arts.
The practice and mastery of kihon is essential to all advanced training, and includes the practice of correct body form and breathing, while practicing basics such as stances, punches, kicks, blocks, and thrusts, but it also includes basic representative kata.
Kihon is not only practicing of techniques, it is also the budōka fostering the correct spirit and attitude at all times.
Kihon techniques tend to be practiced often, in many cases during each practice session. They are considered fundamental to mastery and improvement of all movements of greater complexity. Kihon in martial arts can be seen as analogous to basic skills in, for example, basketball. Professional NBA players continue to practice dribbling, passing, free throws, jump shots, etc. in an effort to maintain and perfect the more complex skills used during a basketball game.
Karate-Do place varying importance on Kihon. Typically this is performance in unison of a technique or a combination of techniques by a group of karateka. Kihon may also be prearranged drills in smaller group or in pairs. Kihon may be practiced as "floor exercises", where the same technique or combination is repeated multiple times as the students moved periods of kihon training.
Karate-Do training can be perform as an art (Budo), as a sport, as a combat sport, or as a self defense training. Traditional Karate-Do places emphasis on self-development (Budo). Japanese Karate training emphasizes the psychological elements incorporated into a proper Kokoro (attitude) such as perseverance, fearlessness, virtue, and leadership skills. Karate training consist of three basic elements such as; Kihon (basics or fundamentals), Kata (forms), and Kumite (sparring combat).
Karate is not an easy art. Like any art the more you practice, the more it will repay you. Karate-Do enriches you physically, mentally and spiritually developing your body, your mind and your character. Especially at the JKA.
Kumite (Sparring) It literally means "meeting of hands." Kumite is practice by both as a sport and self-defense training. Levels of physical contact during sparring vary considerably. Full contact karate has several variants. Knockdown karate uses full power techniques to bring an opponent to the ground. Sparring in armor, (Bogu Kumite) allows full power techniques with some safety. Sport Kumite in many International competition under the World Karate Federation is free or structured with light contact or semi contact and points are awarded by a referee. In structured kumite (Yakusoku, Prearranged), two participants perform a choreographed series of techniques with one striking while the other blocks. The form ends with one devastating technique. In Karate-Do have various other types of practicing Kumite.
Since the word "Kumite" refers to form of sparring, it covers a vast range of activities. In JKA, the first type of kumite for beginners is Gohon Kumite.
Kata means literally "shape" or "model". There are twenty-six kata on the Japan Karate Association (Shotokan) system, starting from the basic to advance. Kata is a formalized sequence of movements which represent various offensive and defensive postures. These postures are based on idealized combat applications. The applications when applied in a demonstration with real opponents is referred to as a Bunkai. The Bunkai shows how every stance and movement is used. Bunkai is useful tool to understand a Kata. To attain a formal rank the karate-ka must demonstrate competence performance of specific required Kata for that level. The Japanese terminology for grades or ranks is commonly used. Requirements for examinations vary among schools.
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Japan Karate Association/Omori-Dojo